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2018 Grant Summaries

Einev Hart & Maurice Schweitzer
University of Pennsylvania
Negotiating for Goods and Services: Will Negotiations Influence Service Quality?

Individuals obtain many consequential outcomes through negotiation. Negotiators aim to advance their own economic interest, but also to build trust and relationships. We challenge the implicit assumption in the negotiation literature that economic concerns and relational concerns are orthogonal. When the negotiation involves the provision of services, the negotiation process may affect relational outcomes that influence productivity. As a result, the negotiation itself may change the service and the economic value of the agreement. We show that in service negotiations, individuals need to build a collaborative relationship through the negotiation process in order to advance their economic interests. Across laboratory and field studies, we demonstrate that individuals negotiate less aggressively for services than for goods, because they fear that negotiating may harm relational outcomes. Our investigation underscores the endogenous importance of negotiators’ relational outcomes to their economic outcomes, in particular when the negotiation involves services and employment.

Nazli Bhatia & Brian Gunia
University of Pennsylvania; Johns Hopkins University
Rationales speaking to negotiators’ constraints

In many conflict-related social situations like negotiations, teams are seen as more competitive and manipulative than individuals. Building from classic and contemporary strands of negotiation research, however, we identify an important and surprising situation in which teams may be perceived in substantially more positive terms than individuals: when they use the stereotypically questionable negotiation tactic known as good cop-bad cop. Why? We suggest that good cop-bad cop is actually a special instance of phantom anchors (retracted and aggressive figures) in negotiation, which are generally perceived as manipulative when they come from individuals (Bhatia & Gunia, 2018). When they come from teams, however, phantom anchors may seem to reflect true disagreement among team members. Our initial results support these predictions, identifying an important situation in which teams may be more effective than individuals at diffusing conflicts, as well as a context (the team setting) in which both phantom anchors and the good cop-bad cop routine may be particularly effective.

Denise Loyd & Molly Kern
University of Illinois; Baruch College
Minority Duos

This work focuses on “minority duos” where there are exactly two members of a subgroup and the subgroup is still in the numeric minority. Using a combination of experimental and field methods, this work will enhance scholarly understanding of dynamics in diverse groups and highlight the importance of examining minority duos. We will examine how group composition affects the behavior of members of the majority towards members of the minority, specifically the extent to which the majority members include duos in the groups’ activities relative to solos. If individuals in groups with duos are less concerned about how their actions toward members of the duo appear to others, they may be less attentive to making sure they include them in the group. In this case, increased diversity may actually result in decreased inclusion. Further, we will explore how group composition affects how solos and duos relate to others in the group. The presence or absence of a similar other in a group can lead to cooperation with, competition against, or simply indifference toward other group members. Finally, we will examine group level outcomes. If the majority categorizes minority duos more than solos, it is likely to lead to greater intragroup conflict and lower group cohesion.

Eliran Halali; host Nir Halevy
Bar Ilon University; host Stanford University
Divide-and-Conquer: Harmful Third Parties Undermine Groups

Third parties often shape others’ interactions and relationships, for better or worse. Whereas much is known about helpful third parties, who bridge social divides and promote cooperation, little is known about harmful third parties, who breed suspicion, hostility, and competition. Integrating the literatures on conflict, brokerage, and unethical behavior, the present research proposal will explore when and why third parties engage in divide-and-conquer behavior (DCB), as well as how the presence of harmful third parties influences cooperation among the targets of DCB. We introduce a novel experimental paradigm—the Divide-and-Conquer Game—specifically designed to study harmful third party intervention and its effects on others’ behavior and outcomes. The game involves three decision-makers: Two associates who choose to cooperate or compete and a third party who chooses to intervene or withhold intervention. Withholding intervention enables the two associates to make decisions in a highly cooperative task and provides the third party with a small, fixed payoff. Intervening transforms the task the associates face to a highly competitive one, and creates outcome interdependence between the associates and the third party. Using this novel experimental paradigm, as well as self-report method in order to obtain a converging evidence, the proposed studies will investigate how the possibility of DCB by a third party influences cooperation within and between groups, as well as when why and how third parties voluntarily choose to engage in harmful compared to harmless and helpful third party intervention.

Smadar Cohen-Chen
University of Surrey
Emotional Expressions and Dual Concern Theory in Conflict Resolution

Abstract withheld as author is on maternity leave and work will not be initiated until 2019.

Andrew Bennett
Old Dominion University
Using improve in the negotiation classroom

Using a “train-the-trainer” model, this grant will provide an opportunity for improvisational theater experts to teach improvisation in an undergraduate negotiations course, train the course primary instructor how to teach improvisation in future semesters, and collaborate to create an improvisation exercise with teaching notes (instructions, activity, sample scenarios, debrief questions) for use by other negotiation instructors. The activity will have three learning objectives critical to improvisation and negotiation: helping students learn to adapt a strategy, manage the process in the moment, and develop creative solutions (Balachandra, Crossan, Devin, Leary, & Patton, 2005).

Georg Berkel
Negotiation Consulting
Negotiation Clips for Teaching

I would like to develop a series of 10 “Negotiation Essentials” (3´) clips:1. Introduction, Deal Making and Dispute Resolution Negotiations 2. The Distribution of Value 3. The Creation of Value 4. The Negotiator´s Dilemma and Lessons from Game Theory 5. Cognitive Illusions and Traps 6. Emotions 7. Culture 8. Negotiation and Contracts 9. Mediation 10. Becoming a better negotiator The videos can be used together with any other material that the teacher uses